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  • Research on Some Key Fundamental Problems in Engineering Gas-solid Two-phase flows (The Second Class National Awards for Nature Science, 2005)
There are many complicated factors that impact the gas-solid two-phase flows. It involves fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer as well as combustion and other many related fundamental disciplines. Therefore, the inherent mechanism in gas-solid two-phase flows, especially the interactions between gas phase and particle phase have not been well known yet so far. Our group early carried out the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation works on two-phase complicated reacting flow system during the process of energy clean utilization and efficient transformation.
Under the consecutive financial supports by multiple National Natural Science Foundations, the key fundamental problems in engineering gas-solid two-phase flows, such as the interaction mechanism between fluid and particle as well as the mathematic model in gas-solid two-phase turbulent flows, the interactions between particle and wall as well as the mechanism for heat-transfer enhancement in gas-solid two-phase boundary layer flows, and the flow characteristics together with impact factors in gas-solid two-phase fluid-bed were deeply investigated both in theory and simulations in the present project.
On the basis of the above studies, the applicable fundamental problems, such as the gas-solid two-phase flow, combustion, heat transfer, pollutant formation, slag, gas-solid two-phase separation as well as the erosion of equipment and the anti-erosion methods in practical furnaces of combustion engineering were also deeply studied. The results can provide important theory reference for practical engineering problems and some of them have also been applied to engineering.
  • Key Technologies and Applications for Ultro-low Emission of Coal Fired Units (The First Class of National Technical Invention Award , 2017)
¡¡¡¡Coal combustion is the main cause of the severe smog problem in some areas. Coal burning power plants have urgent need to achieve ultra-low emission, which is of great significance to solve the air pollution problem and ensure the energy security. Concerning the key issues, e.g., the efficiency of coal-fired pollution controlling from moderate to ultra-low, the flexibility and compatibility of complex coal quality, and the reliability of system operation and the low economic cost, a multi-field enhancing removal of particle and SO3 technology with temperature-humidity controlling was invented, which solved the problem of low removal efficiency of fine particles through the multiple process of ¡®condensing, agglomerating, charging and migrating¡¯; an integrated removal of multiple pollutants system with ultra-low emission was also invented, which helped to achieve the low-cost ultra-low emission of multi-pollutants under complex coal quality and various operation conditions.
¡¡¡¡Over the years, 34 invention patents have been authorized, 15 national and industrial standards have been formulated, and 103 academic papers have been published, which were cited for 1038 times in total. The first ultra-low emission demonstration project for coal-fired units has been built, the emission concentration being significantly better than the limit value. The project has been awarded by the National Energy Administration for ¡°National Energy Saving and Emission Reduction Demonstration Coal-fired Power Plant¡±. A national-level collaborative innovation center in 2011 has been established. Up to now, the inventions have achieved large-scale application, where the cumulative installed capacity exceeding 100 million kilowatts. Application of these techniques has significantly reduced coal-fired pollutants, improving coal-fired pollution controlling technologies and equipment, which promotes and supportes the country implementation of ultra-low emission strategy for coal-fired power plants.
  • The Key Technologies of Collaborative Controlling of Hazardous Waste for Rotary Multi-stage Pyrolysis Incinerators and Pollutants (The Second Class of The National Science and Technology Progress Award , 2017)
¡¡¡¡On behalf of environmental protection and requirements of national hazardous waste harmless disposal, innovative technological breakthroughs have been made in the self-melting cleaning of the rotary kiln, in the controlling of pollutants, as well as in the compatibility of various types of materials, realizing the long-term stable pyrolysis incineration of hazardous wastes. Main innovations include: originally developed new technology of rotary multi-stage pyrolysis self-melting incineration to adapt to the complex components in hazardous waste, exceeding the technical bottleneck of the continuous and stable operation of rotary kiln technology; an optimal self-adapting controlling method and the combined purification strategy of hazardous waste pyrolysis in complex working conditions; a database of typical hazardous waste pyrolysis and incineration characteristics and a new method improving the compatibility of multi-form hazardous waste, which provides technical support for the system's adaptability of clean incineration. This project has been authorized 18 national invention patents, with the number of other intellectual properties up to 14. There have been 65articals collected in SCI, and 2 national standards or technical specifications being formulated. This project also won the first prize in science and technology awards in Zhejiang province in 2012 and China's patent excellence award in 2016. The results of the project have been widely used in China, with sales of 18.446.1 billion RMB and new profits of 3.5066 billion RMB in the last three years. It plays an active role in promoting the innocuous disposal of hazardous wastes in our country, which is of great significance for promoting industry and environmental protection.
  • Indirect Thermal Drying of Sludge Stirring and Clean Incineration Integrated Technology of Compound Circulating Fluidized Bed (The Second Class of National Science and Technology Progress Award , 2014)
Facing the great demand of innocuity treatment and quantity reduction of sludge, and supported by the national water project and 863 plan project, key technical breakthrough has been made on indirect thermal drying of sludge agitation, incineration and emission controlling.. We have originally developed a sludge agitation indirect drying equipment which overcomes sludge stickiness, and hane developed a sludge incineration technology with combined cycle in fluidized bed f. The results were adopted by national standards and technical guidelines, and 31 patents were authorized (including 13 invention patents), together with 103 papers being published by SCI/EI (among which 59 included in SCI). 2 monographs have been written, and 5 invited lectures have been made at international conferences. Sludge drying incineration integrated equipment has been formed, with a single set processing capacity of 20 tons/day~500 tons/day. This equipment has been widely used in leading enterprises in this field and there has been already 112 sets exported to Korea. The main demonstration project was approved by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development and the National Development and Reform Commission as the first batch of "Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge Treatment and Disposal Demonstration Project", which has played an active role in promoting the innocuity treatment and quantity reduction and recycling of sludge in China and is of great significance to promote industry progress.
  • Innovation and Usage of Deep-Hypothermia Regenerative Cooling Techniques (The Second Class of State Technological Innovation Award , 2014)
Combining the country's major strategic requirements and the needs of cryogenics subject development, with the continuous support of national projects, the innovation of deep-hypothermia regenerative cooling techniques was carried out. It was proved for the first time that the theoretical refrigerating temperature of regenerative cryocoolers could approach the ¦Ë line which is the temperature profile with zero isentropic expansion coefficient of helium as refrigerant. This line predicts that refrigeration with the use of helium-4 can reach around 2.2k, while the use of helium-3 is desired to obtain a lower temperature of about 1k. The group invented the double-valve & double-inlet structure, created and maintained the minimum refrigerating temperature record of a single-stage pulse tube refrigerator - 10.6k. Using a double-hole phase shifter technique, a two-stage pulse tube refrigerator was used to obtain a low temperature of 3.0K. The "Debye Heat Capacity Theory Model" applicable to crystals was extended to low-temperature quantum fluids, and a wide-range as well as high-accuracy state equation of helium-3 was established, filling the blanks in this field. The complete temperature-entropy and pressure-enthalpy curves of helium-3 were drawn, and the thermal property calculation software He3Pak was developed. It was issued to the world through the certification of cryogenic thermal property authority Cryodata.
  • Energy-mass Transfer Enhancement Mechanism of Fuel Transformation from Microbial to Biomass Oil (The First Class of Zhejiang Province Natural Science Award , 2017)
¡¡¡¡Low carbon biofuels are one of the key technologies to solve the serious air pollution and the shortage of petroleum and natural gas problem, and to stimulate energy ¨C saving, environmental friendly and sustainable energy industries. There are three challenges in transformation of microbial to biomass oil fuel: slow mass transfer for trans-membrane permeation, difficult hydrocarbons conversion to wanted products, and suffocated transmission of energy cascades. The project has three key scientific issues: the membrane diffusion mechanism, the enzyme activity regulation strategy, and the chain reaction mechanism. Supported by the national fund, provincial fund and the ministry of science and technology, a theoretical framework for the microbial energy has been achieved in hydrocarbon ¨C orientation conversion and energy cascades transmission. Innovations of this project lies in: 1. The eddy diffusion mechanism of the membrane pores being revealed, the eddy flash effect and the high-carbon stress of flue gas being proposed, and the problem of slow mass transfer in the interface of the cell membrane being solved; 2. The strategy of enzyme activity orientation regulation being put forward, and the problem of low catalytic activity of traditional bio-enzymes being solved by mutagenesis and acclimation of pressure gradients; 3. A chain step reaction model being established, and the enzymatic chemical chain coupling and reaction energy barrier steps being proposed, solving the international difficulties in the transmission of energy cascades.
¡¡¡¡The project has published 51 SCI papers on the top SCI journal (e.g. PECS, IF = 17.3) in the energy field, which have been cited up to 810 times, where 10 representative papers have been cited 389 times, with the single highest cited paper being cited 95 times. Published papers have been widely quoted by academicians from the United States and Europe in internationally renowned journal CSR (IF = 34.1) and 15 international monographs. The project has been invited 7 reports on the international conference, authorized 12 invention patents. The project has trained outstanding talents such as the national outstanding youth and the ten thousand people leader plan. The proposed microbial energy theory method has been validated in Shandong province and Zhejiang province for scientific verification tests and will serve the national energy conservation and environmental protection industry.
Large Oil-gas Boiler Combustion Vibration Control Technology (Scientific Research Outstanding Achievement Award (Science and Technology) The First Class of Scientific and Technological Progress Award, 2017)

¡¡¡¡The oil and gas combustion in oil- gas furnaces, gas turbines, aircraft engines and other oil- gas combustion chambers is of high intensity and speed. There is a strong mutual coupling between turbulence, heat and mass transfer and combustion chemical reactions, as well as sound field effects in the laboratory and other physical and chemical processes which will lead to resonances and generate combustion vibration and even equipment damage, which has become a major challenge for oil- gas combustion equipment design and safe operation. International studies on combustion vibration mainly focus on premixed combustion vibration in compact confined spaces such as gas turbines and aircraft engines. However, there are only seldomresearches on large-scale, non-premixed combustion in oil- gas combustion boiler , especially the vibration diagnosis and controlling of the new phenomenon under large-scale and low-NOx combustion . Nowadays, there are large number of oil and gas boilers exported abroad, in urgent need of the combustion vibration control technology. In this project, the coupling mechanism between the turbulent vortex structure and the thermal-acoustic instability of combustion was studied, and an analysis theory and method using flame characteristics, combustion noise, and high-frequency measurement of furnace pressure were proposed.
¡¡¡¡New methods and techniques are proposed to eliminate the coupling effect of the vortex-flame-acoustic field, such as the inhibiting temperature driven thermo-acoustic vibration method by adjusting the inlet boundary and the channel damping. We have developed a coordinated control technology for combustion vibration and pollutant emissions. The self-developed heavy oil swirl combustion system has a combustion NOX emission of less than 260 mg/Nm^3, which overcomes the defects of high NOX emissions caused by the high heat load of the oil solvent combustion. The NOX emission reduction rate of the combustion system exceeds 60% compared with the original combustion system. This technology has been applied to the design and operation of large-scale oil -gas boilers of China's three major power equipment production groups (Eastern pot, upper pot, and Harbin pot). The project implementation has effectively solved the problem of furnace combustion vibration of the Shattrag project and effectively assessed the design of the combustion system of oil-gas boilers exported to Iraq, Vietnam, and Venezuela. The boilers run at full capacity safely and the pollutants are controlled under standard limitation, which provided great opportunities and technical support for Chinese companies to open up the electricity markets in the Middle East and South America and is of huge economic benefits. According to the application certificate, the economic benefits have reached 4.425 billionRMB. This application also has remarkable social benefits and plays a significant role in the development of related discipline construction and industry.

The Directional Chemical GradedConversion of Biomass to High Quality Liquid Fuels (Excellent achievement award for scientific research in Colleges and Universities (Science and Technology) First Class in Natural Science , 2016)
¡¡¡¡Biomass is a kind of carbon-containing renewable resource that can be used for the large-scale production of liquid fuels. Thermochemical conversion is an advanced technique and research hotspot for the production of liquid fuels, while the thermal deconstruction mechanism of the complex components of biomass, the liquid production source regulation and quality enhancement mechanism of liquid products are longstanding theoretical problems in this field. The project carried out relevant basic research in a targeted manner; in conjunction with theoretical experiments and theoretical calculations of density inverse functions, a theoretical deconstruction system for biomass components was refined; the source regulation of the target products in the conversion process was revealed. Besides a new method for the classification and modification of bio-oil was proposed and the conversion mechanism of oxygen-containing functional groups was elucidated. Thus, a theoretical system for the directional chemical classific conversion of biomass to high quality liquid fuels was systematically constructed. The relevant results were at the word-leading level of its kind.
Field Parameters Real-time Monitoring, Online Diagnoses and Optimization Controlling Technology in Combustion (First Classin Science and Technology Progress in Zhejiang Province)
¡¡¡¡Energy saving and emission reduction are major strategic issues in the sustainable development of China's social sustainable economy development. With the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, 863 and 973 projects, the project has innovatively proposed a new method for rapid measurement of real-time three-dimensional temperature field and particle concentration distribution through multi-view flame images based on flame radiation. Combining with the traditional measurement data and an effective combustion prediction model constructed, a new control system that satisfies combustion characteristics of different fuels is established. The project established a new generation advanced combustion control system based on three-dimensional measurement and real-time diagnosis, which greatly improved the diagnosis and control level of the combustion process. 75 papers (of which 32 SCI papers) have been published, and we obtained 4 national invention patents and 5 software copyrights. The research results have been successfully applied to large-scale coal-fired boilers and household garbage, sludge and waste incineration systems. The newly increased sales revenue in the past three years was approximately 3.07 billion RMB. it has been approved by the experts that ¡°the project overall has reached the international advanced level, and the combined reconstruction of three-dimensional temperature field and concentration field has reached the international leading level¡±. By using the new online measurement method, the project established a new type of combustion diagnostic method and optimized control model, and developed a new generation of combustion measurement and optimization control system, which provided key technical guarantees for the realization of China's major strategic targets of the energy conservation and emission reduction.
Application for Scholar Fund of Key Laboratory.